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Jason Myers, Rick Copeland - Essential SQLAlchemy, 2nd Edition [2015, PDF/EPUB/MOBI, ENG]

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Essential SQLAlchemy, 2nd Edition
Год издания: 2015
Автор: Jason Myers, Rick Copeland
Жанр или тематика: Программирование
Издательство: O'Reilly Media
ISBN: 9781491916469
Язык: Английский
Формат: PDF/EPUB/MOBI
Качество: Издательский макет или текст (eBook)
Интерактивное оглавление: Да
Количество страниц: 208
Описание: Dive into SQLAlchemy, the popular, open-source code library that helps Python programmers work with relational databases such as Oracle, MySQL, PostgresSQL, and SQLite. Using real-world examples, this practical guide shows you how to build a simple database application with SQLAlchemy, and how to connect to multiple databases simultaneously with the same metadata.
SQL is a powerful language for querying and manipulating data, but it’s tough to integrate it with your application. SQLAlchemy helps you map Python objects to database tables without substantially changing your existing Python code. If you’re an intermediate Python developer with knowledge of basic SQL syntax and relational theory, this book serves as both a learning tool and a handy reference.
Essential SQLAlchemy includes several sections:
- SQLAlchemy Core: Provide database services to your applications in a Pythonic way with the SQL Expression Language
- SQLAlchemy ORM: Use the object relational mapper to bind database schema and operations to data objects in your application
- Alembic: Use this lightweight database migration tool to handle changes to the database as your application evolves
- Cookbook: Learn how to use SQLAlchemy with web frameworks like Flask and libraries like SQLAcodegen

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Table of Contents
Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Introduction to SQLAlchemy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Part I. SQLAlchemy Core
1. Schema and Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Types 1
Metadata 3
Tables 4
Columns 5
Keys and Constraints 6
Indexes 7
Relationships and ForeignKeyConstraints 7
Persisting the Tables 9
2. Working with Data via SQLAlchemy Core. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Inserting Data 13
Querying Data 17
ResultProxy 18
Controlling the Columns in the Query 20
Ordering 20
Limiting 21
Built-In SQL Functions and Labels 22
Filtering 24
ClauseElements 25
Operators 26
Boolean Operators 27
Conjunctions 27
Updating Data 28
Deleting Data 29
Joins 31
Aliases 32
Grouping 33
Chaining 34
Raw Queries 35
3. Exceptions and Transactions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Exceptions 37
AttributeError 38
IntegrityError 40
Handling Errors 41
Transactions 43
4. Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Testing with a Test Database 51
Using Mocks 58
5. Reflection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Reflecting Individual Tables 63
Reflecting a Whole Database 66
Query Building with Reflected Objects 66
Part II. SQLAlchemy ORM
6. Defining Schema with SQLAlchemy ORM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Defining Tables via ORM Classes 71
Keys, Constraints, and Indexes 73
Relationships 74
Persisting the Schema 75
7. Working with Data via SQLAlchemy ORM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
The Session 77
Inserting Data 80
Querying Data 83
Controlling the Columns in the Query 86
Ordering 86
Limiting 87
Built-In SQL Functions and Labels 88
Filtering 89
Operators 90
Boolean Operators 92
Conjunctions 92
Updating Data 93
Deleting Data 94
Joins 97
Grouping 98
Chaining 99
Raw Queries 101
8. Understanding the Session and Exceptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
The SQLAlchemy Session 105
Session States 105
Exceptions 108
MultipleResultsFound Exception 108
DetachedInstanceError 110
Transactions 112
9. Testing with SQLAlchemy ORM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Testing with a Test Database 121
Using Mocks 130
10. Reflection with SQLAlchemy ORM and Automap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Reflecting a Database with Automap 133
Reflected Relationships 135
Part III. Alembic
11. Getting Started with Alembic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Creating the Migration Environment 139
Configuring the Migration Environment 140
12. Building Migrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Generating a Base Empty Migration 143
Autogenerating a Migration 145
Building a Migration Manually 149
13. Controlling Alembic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Determining a Database’s Migration Level 151
Downgrading Migrations 152
Marking the Database Migration Level 153
Generating SQL 154
14. Cookbook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Hybrid Attributes 157
Association Proxy 160
Integrating SQLAlchemy with Flask 166
SQLAcodegen 169
15. Where to Go from Here. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
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